The four main kinds of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, critical and persuasive.

The four main kinds of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, critical and persuasive.

In many texts that are academic will need to use one or more type. For example, in an thesis that is empirical

  • you can expect to use critical writing in the literature review to show where there is certainly a gap or opportunity into the existing research
  • the techniques section will be mostly descriptive to summarise the strategy used to collect and analyse information
  • the results section will soon be mostly descriptive and analytical while you report in the data you collected
  • the discussion section is much more analytical, as you relate your findings back again to your research questions, and in addition persuasive, as you propose your interpretations regarding the findings.


The simplest type of academic writing is descriptive. Its purpose is always to provide facts or information. An illustration will be a listing of an article or a report of this outcomes of an experiment.

The sorts of instructions for a purely descriptive assignment include: identify, report, record, summarise and define.


It’s rare for a text that is university-level be purely descriptive. Most writing that is academic also analytical. Analytical writing includes descriptive writing, but you also re-organise the known facts and information you describe into categories, groups, parts, types or relationships.

Sometimes, these categories or relationships already are the main discipline, sometimes you may create them especially for your text. For instance, if you’re comparing two theories, you may break your comparison into several parts, for instance: how each theory relates to social context, how each theory deals with language learning, and exactly how each theory may be used in practice.

The kinds of instructions for an assignment that is analytical: analyse, compare, contrast, relate, examine.

To create your writing more analytical:

  • spend sufficient time planning. Brainstorm the known facts and ideas, and attempt other ways of grouping them, relating to patterns, parts, similarities and differences. You could utilize colour-coding, flow charts, tree diagrams or tables.
  • create a name for the relationships and categories you will find. For instance, pros and cons.
  • build each section and paragraph around among the analytical categories.
  • make the structure of your paper clear to your reader, by utilizing topic sentences and a clear introduction.
  • In most writing that is academic you are required to go one or more step further than analytical writing, to persuasive writing. Persuasive writing has all the features of analytical writing (this is certainly, information plus re-organising the details), by adding your point that is own of. Most essays are persuasive, and there is a element that is persuasive at least the discussion and conclusion of a study article.

    Points of view in academic writing can include a disagreement, a recommendation, interpretation of findings or evaluation of the ongoing work of others. Each claim you make needs to be supported by some evidence, for example a reference to research findings or published sources in persuasive writing.

    The kinds of instructions for a persuasive assignment include: argue, evaluate, discuss, take a situation.

    To assist reach finally your point that is own of regarding the facts or ideas:

    • read several other researchers’ points of take on the subject. That do you feel is the most convincing?
    • search for patterns in the data or references. Where may be the evidence strongest?
    • list several different interpretations. Exactly what are the real-life implications of each one? Those that are usually most beneficial or useful? Those that possess some problems?
    • discuss the facts and ideas with some other person. Can you agree with their point of view?

    To develop your argument:

    • list the different good reasons for your point of view
    • think about the different kinds and types of evidence which you can use to aid your point of view
    • consider other ways that your point of view is similar to, and different from, the points of view of other researchers
    • try to find various ways to break your point of view into parts. For instance, cost effectiveness, environmental sustainability, scope of real-world application.

    To present your argument, make sure:

    • your text develops a argument that is coherent all the individual claims work together to aid your general point of view
    • your reasoning for every claim is obvious into the reader
    • your assumptions are valid
    • you have got evidence for each claim you create
    • you utilize evidence this is certainly convincing and directly relevant.

    Critical writing is common for research, postgraduate and advanced writing that is undergraduate. This has all of the features of persuasive writing, because of the added feature of at least one other point of view. While persuasive writing requires you to have your own point of take on a problem or topic, critical writing requires one to consider at least two points of view, as well as your own.

    For instance, you might explain a researcher’s interpretation or argument and then measure the merits associated with the pay someone to write my paper argument, or give your own interpretation that is alternative.

    Samples of critical writing assignments include a critique of a journal article, or a literature review that identifies the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. The sorts of instructions for critical writing include: critique, debate, disagree, evaluate.

    • accurately summarise all or an element of the work. This may include identifying the main interpretations, assumptions or methodology.
    • have an opinion in regards to the work. Appropriate forms of opinion could include pointing out some issues with it, proposing an alternative approach that would be better, and/or defending the work resistant to the critiques of others
    • provide evidence for your point of view. Depending on the assignment that is specific the discipline, different types of evidence can be appropriate, such as logical reasoning, mention of authoritative sources and/or research data.

    Critical writing requires writing that is strong. You will need to thoroughly comprehend the topic together with issues. You’ll want to develop an essay structure and paragraph structure that enables you to analyse different interpretations and build your argument that is own by evidence.

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